Let's say you have some global data:

unsigned char mydata[11][10] =
{
        {0x00,0x01,0x02,0x03,0x04,0x05,0x06,0x07,0x08,0x09},
        {0x0A,0x0B,0x0C,0x0D,0x0E,0x0F,0x10,0x11,0x12,0x13},
        {0x14,0x15,0x16,0x17,0x18,0x19,0x1A,0x1B,0x1C,0x1D},
        {0x1E,0x1F,0x20,0x21,0x22,0x23,0x24,0x25,0x26,0x27},
        {0x28,0x29,0x2A,0x2B,0x2C,0x2D,0x2E,0x2F,0x30,0x31},
        {0x32,0x33,0x34,0x35,0x36,0x37,0x38,0x39,0x3A,0x3B},
        {0x3C,0x3D,0x3E,0x3F,0x40,0x41,0x42,0x43,0x44,0x45},
        {0x46,0x47,0x48,0x49,0x4A,0x4B,0x4C,0x4D,0x4E,0x4F},
        {0x50,0x51,0x52,0x53,0x54,0x55,0x56,0x57,0x58,0x59},
        {0x5A,0x5B,0x5C,0x5D,0x5E,0x5F,0x60,0x61,0x62,0x63},
        {0x64,0x65,0x66,0x67,0x68,0x69,0x6A,0x6B,0x6C,0x6D}
};

and later in your code you access this data in a function and store a single byte into a variable like so:

byte = mydata[i][j];

Now you want to store your data in Program Memory. Use the PROGMEM macro found in <avr/pgmspace.h> and put it after the declaration of the variable, but before the initializer, like so:

#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
.
.
.
unsigned char mydata[11][10] PROGMEM =
{
        {0x00,0x01,0x02,0x03,0x04,0x05,0x06,0x07,0x08,0x09},
        {0x0A,0x0B,0x0C,0x0D,0x0E,0x0F,0x10,0x11,0x12,0x13},
        {0x14,0x15,0x16,0x17,0x18,0x19,0x1A,0x1B,0x1C,0x1D},
        {0x1E,0x1F,0x20,0x21,0x22,0x23,0x24,0x25,0x26,0x27},
        {0x28,0x29,0x2A,0x2B,0x2C,0x2D,0x2E,0x2F,0x30,0x31},
        {0x32,0x33,0x34,0x35,0x36,0x37,0x38,0x39,0x3A,0x3B},
        {0x3C,0x3D,0x3E,0x3F,0x40,0x41,0x42,0x43,0x44,0x45},
        {0x46,0x47,0x48,0x49,0x4A,0x4B,0x4C,0x4D,0x4E,0x4F},
        {0x50,0x51,0x52,0x53,0x54,0x55,0x56,0x57,0x58,0x59},
        {0x5A,0x5B,0x5C,0x5D,0x5E,0x5F,0x60,0x61,0x62,0x63},
        {0x64,0x65,0x66,0x67,0x68,0x69,0x6A,0x6B,0x6C,0x6D}
};

That's it! Now your data is in the Program Space. You can compile, link, and check the map file to verify that mydata is placed in the correct section.

Now that your data resides in the Program Space, your code to access (read) the data will no longer work. The code that gets generated will retrieve the data that is located at the address of the mydata array, plus offsets indexed by the i and j variables. However, the final address that is calculated where to the retrieve the data points to the Data Space! Not the Program Space where the data is actually located. It is likely that you will be retrieving some garbage. The problem is that AVR GCC does not intrinsically know that the data resides in the Program Space.

The solution is fairly simple. The "rule of thumb" for accessing data stored in the Program Space is to access the data as you normally would (as if the variable is stored in Data Space), like so:

byte = mydata[i][j];

then take the address of the data:

byte = &(mydata[i][j]);

then use the appropriate pgm_read_* macro, and the address of your data becomes the parameter to that macro:

byte = pgm_read_byte(&(mydata[i][j]));

The pgm_read_* macros take an address that points to the Program Space, and retrieves the data that is stored at that address. This is why you take the address of the offset into the array. This address becomes the parameter to the macro so it can generate the correct code to retrieve the data from the Program Space. There are different pgm_read_* macros to read different sizes of data at the address given.