BYTE - reserve bytes for a variable

The BYTE directive reserves memory resources in the SRAM or EEPROM. In order to be able to refer to the reserved location, the BYTE directive should be preceded by a label. The directive takes one parameter, which is the number of bytes to reserve. The directive can not be used within a Code segment (see directives ESEG, CSEG, DSEG) .Note that a parameter must be given. The allocated bytes are not initialized.

Syntax:

LABEL: .BYTE expression

Example:

.DSEG 
var1:  .BYTE 1 ; reserve 1 byte to var1 
table: .BYTE tab_size ; reserve tab_size bytes

.CSEG 
ldi r30,low(var1) ; Load Z register low 
ldi r31,high(var1) ; Load Z register high 
ld r1,Z ; Load VAR1 into register 1

CSEG - Code segment

The CSEG directive defines the start of a Code Segment. An Assembler file can consist of several Code Segments, which are concatenated into one Code Segment when assembled. The BYTE directive can not be used within a Code Segment. The default segment type is Code. The Code Segments have their own location counter which is a word counter. The ORG directive can be used to place code and constants at specific locations in the Program memory. The directive does not take any parameters.

Syntax:

.CSEG

Example:

.DSEG ; Start data segment 
vartab: .BYTE 4 ; Reserve 4 bytes in SRAM

.CSEG ; Start code segment 
const: .DW 2 ; Write 0x0002 in prog.mem. 
mov r1,r0 ; Do something

CSEGSIZE - Program Memory Size

AT94K devices have a user configurable memory partition between the AVR Program memory and the data memory. The program and data SRAM is divided into three blocks: 10K x 16 dedicated program SRAM, 4K x 8 dedicated data SRAM, and 6K x 16 or 12K x 8 configurable SRAM which may be swapped between program and data memory spaces in 2K x 16 or 4K x 8 partitions. This directive is used to specify the size of the program memory block.

Syntax:

.CSEGSIZE = 10 | 12 | 14 | 16

Example:

.CSEGSIZE = 12 ; Specifies the program meory size as 12K x 16

DB - Define constant byte(s) in program memory and EEPROM

The DB directive reserves memory resources in the program memory or the EEPROM memory. In order to be able to refer to the reserved locations, the DB directive should be preceded by a label. The DB directive takes a list of expressions, and must contain at least one expression. The DB directive must be placed in a Code Segment or an EEPROM Segment.

The expression list is a sequence of expressions, delimited by commas. Each expression must evaluate to a number between -128 and 255. If the expression evaluates to a negative number, the 8 bits twos complement of the number will be placed in the program memory or EEPROM memory location.

If the DB directive is given in a Code Segment and the expressionlist contains more than one expression, the expressions are packed so that two bytes are placed in each program memory word. If the expressionlist contains an odd number of expressions, the last expression will be placed in a program memory word of its own, even if the next line in the assemby code contains a DB directive. The unused half of the program word is set to zero. A warning is given, in order to notify the user that an extra zero byte is added to the .DB statement

Syntax:

LABEL: .DB expressionlist

Example:

.CSEG 
consts: .DB 0, 255, 0b01010101, -128, 0xaa

.ESEG 
const2: .DB 1,2,3

DEF - Set a symbolic name on a register

The DEF directive allows the registers to be referred to through symbols. A defined symbol can be used in the rest of the program to refer to the register it is assigned to. A register can have several symbolic names attached to it. A symbol can be redefined later in the program.

Syntax:

.DEF Symbol=Register

Example:

.DEF temp=R16 
.DEF ior=R0

.CSEG 
ldi temp,0xf0 ; Load 0xf0 into temp register 
in ior,0x3f ; Read SREG into ior register 
eor temp,ior ; Exclusive or temp and ior

UNDEF - Undefine a register symbolic name

'The UNDEF directive is used to undefine a symbol previously defined with the DEF directive. This provides a way to obtain a simple scoping of register definitions, to avoid warnings about register reuse.

Syntax:

.UNDEF symbol

Example:

.DEF var1 = R16 
ldi var1, 0x20 
... ; do something more with var1 
.UNDEF var1 

.DEF var2 = R16 ; R16 can now be reused without warning.

DSEG - Data Segment

The DSEG directive defines the start of a Data segment. An assembler source file can consist of several data segments, which are concatenated into a single data segment when assembled. A data segment will normally only consist of BYTE directives (and labels). The Data Segments have their own location counter which is a byte counter. The ORG directive can be used to place the variables at specific locations in the SRAM. The directive does not take any parameters.

Syntax:

.DSEG

Example:

.DSEG ; Start data segment 
var1: .BYTE 1 ; reserve 1 byte to var1 
table: .BYTE tab_size ; reserve tab_size bytes.

.CSEG 
ldi r30,low(var1) ; Load Z register low 
ldi r31,high(var1) ; Load Z register high 
ld r1,Z ; Load var1 into register 1

DW - Define constant word(s) in program memory and EEPROM

The DW directive reserves memory resources in the program memory or the EEPROM memory. In order to be able to refer to the reserved locations, the DW directive should be preceded by a label. The DW directive takes a list of expressions, and must contain at least one expression. The DB directive must be placed in a Code Segment or an EEPROM Segment.

The expression list is a sequence of expressions, delimited by commas. Each expression must evaluate to a number between -32768 and 65535. If the expression evaluates to a negative number, the 16 bits two's complement of the number will be placed in the program memory or EEPROM memory location.

Syntax:

LABEL: .DW expressionlist

Example:

.CSEG 
varlist: .DW 0, 0xffff, 0b1001110001010101, -32768, 65535

.ESEG 
eevarlst: .DW 0,0xffff,10

DD - Define constant doubleword(s) in program memory and EEPROM

DQ - Define constant quadword(s) in program memory and EEPROM

These directives are very similar to the DW directive, except they are used to define 32-bit (doubleword) and 64-bit (quadword) respectively. The data layout in memory is strictly little-endian.

Syntax:

LABEL: .DD expressionlist

LABEL: .DQ expressionlist

Example:

.CSEG 
varlist: .DD 0, 0xfadebabe, -2147483648, 1 << 30

.ESEG 
eevarlst: .DQ 0,0xfadebabedeadbeef, 1 << 62

>ELIF,ELSE - conditional assembly

.ELIF will include code until the corresponding ENDIF of the next ELIF at the same level if the expression is true, and both the initial .IF clause and all following .ELIF clauses are false.

.ELSE will include code until the corresponding .ENDIF if the initial.IF clause and all .ELIF clauses (if any) all are false.

Syntax:

.ELIF<expression>

.ELSE

.IFDEF <symbol> |.IFNDEF <symbol>

.ELSE | .ELIF<expression>

.ENDIF

Example:

.IFDEF DEBUG 
.MESSAGE "Debugging.." 
.ELSE 
.MESSAGE "Release.." 
.ENDIF

ENDIF - conditional assembly

Conditional assembly includes a set of commands at assembly time. The ENDIF directive defines the end for the conditional IF or IFDEF or IFNDEF directives.

Conditionals (.IF...ELIF...ELSE...ENDIF blocks) may be nested, but all conditionals must be terminated at the end of file (conditionals may not span multiple files).

Syntax:

.ENDIF

.IFDEF <symbol> |.IFNDEF <symbol>

.ELSE | .ELIF<expression>

.ENDIF

Example:

.IFNDEF DEBUG 
.MESSAGE "Release.." 
.ELSE 
.MESSAGE "Debugging.." 
.ENDIF

ENDM, ENDMACRO - End macro

The ENDMACRO directive defines the end of a macro definition. The directive does not take any parameters. See the MACRO directive for more information on defining macros. ENDM is an alternative form, fully equivalent with ENDMACRO.

Syntax:

.ENDMACRO

.ENDM

Example:

.MACRO SUBI16 ; Start macro definition 
subi r16,low(@0) ; Subtract low byte 
sbci r17,high(@0) ; Subtract high byte 
.ENDMACRO

EQU - Set a symbol equal to an expression

The EQU directive assigns a value to a label. This label can then be used in later expressions. A label assigned to a value by the EQU directive is a constant and can not be changed or redefined.

Syntax:

.EQU label = expression

Example:

.EQU io_offset = 0x23 
.EQU porta = io_offset + 2.CSEG ; Start code segment 
clr r2 ; Clear register 2 
out porta,r2 ; Write to Port A

ERROR- Outputs an error message string

The ERROR directive outputs a string and halts the assembling. May be used in conditional assembly.

Syntax:

.ERROR "<string>"

Example:

.IFDEF TOBEDONE 
.ERROR "Still stuff to be done.." 
.ENDIF

WARNING - Outputs a warning message string

The .WARNING directive outputs a warning string, but unlike the .ERROR directive does not halt assembling. May be used in conditional assembly.

Syntax:

.WARNING"<string>"

Example:

.IFDEF EXPERIMENTAL_FEATURE 
.WARNING "This is not properly tested, use at own risk." 
.ENDIF

ESEG - EEPROM Segment

The ESEG directive defines the start of an EEPROM segment. An assembler source file can consist of several EEPROM segments, which are concatenated into a single EEPROM segment when assembled. An EEPROM segment will normally only consist of DB and DW directives (and labels). The EEPROM segments have their own location counter which is a byte counter. The ORG directive can be used to place the variables at specific locations in the EEPROM. The directive does not take any parameters.

Syntax:

.ESEG

Example:

.DSEG ; Start data segment 
var1: .BYTE 1 ; reserve 1 byte to var1 
table: .BYTE tab_size ; reserve tab_size bytes.

.ESEG 
eevar1: .DW 0xffff ; initialize 1 word in EEPROM

EXIT - Exit this file

The EXIT directive tells the Assembler to stop assembling the file. Normally, the Assembler runs until end of file (EOF). If an EXIT directive appears in an included file, the Assembler continues from the line following the INCLUDE directive in the file containing the INCLUDE directive.

Syntax:

.EXIT

Example:

.EXIT ; Exit this file

INCLUDE - Include another file

The INCLUDE directive tells the Assembler to start reading from a specified file. The Assembler then assembles the specified file until end of file (EOF) or an EXIT directive is encountered. An included file may itself contain INCLUDE directives. The difference between the two forms is that the first searches the current directory first, the second does not.

Syntax:

.INCLUDE "filename"

.INCLUDE <filename>

Example:

; iodefs.asm: 
.EQU sreg = 0x3f ; Status register 
.EQU sphigh = 0x3e ; Stack pointer high 
.EQU splow = 0x3d ; Stack pointer low

; incdemo.asm 
.INCLUDE iodefs.asm ; Include I/O definitions 
in r0,sreg ; Read status register

IF,IFDEF,IFNDEF - conditional assembly

Conditional assembly includes a set of commands at assembly time. The IFDEF directive will include code till the corresponding ELSE directive if <symbol> is defined. The symbol must be defined with the EQU or SET directive. (Will not work with the DEF directive) The IF directive will include code if <expression> is evaluated different from 0. Valid till the corresponding ELSE or ENDIF directive.

Up to 5 levels of nesting is possible.

Syntax:

.IFDEF <symbol>

.IFNDEF <symbol>

.IF <expression>

.IFDEF <symbol> |.IFNDEF <symbol>

.ELSE | .ELIF<expression>

.ENDIF

Example:

.MACRO SET_BAT 
.IF @0>0x3F 
.MESSAGE "Address larger than 0x3f" 
lds @2, @0 
sbr @2, (1<<@1) 
sts @0, @2 
.ELSE 
.MESSAGE "Address less or equal 0x3f" 
.ENDIF 
.ENDMACRO

LIST - Turn the listfile generation on

The LIST directive tells the Assembler to turn listfile generation on. The Assembler generates a listfile which is a combination of assembly source code, addresses and opcodes. Listfile generation is turned on by default. The directive can also be used together with the NOLIST directive in order to only generate listfile of selected parts of an assembly source file.

Syntax:

.LIST

Example:

.NOLIST ; Disable listfile generation 
.INCLUDE "macro.inc" ; The included files will not 
.INCLUDE "const.def" ; be shown in the listfile 
.LIST ; Reenable listfile generation

LISTMAC - Turn macro expansion on

The LISTMAC directive tells the Assembler that when a macro is called, the expansion of the macro is to be shown on the listfile generated by the Assembler. The default is that only the macro-call with parameters is shown in the listfile.

Syntax:

.LISTMAC

Example:

.MACRO MACX ; Define an example macro 
add r0,@0 ; Do something 
eor r1,@1 ; Do something 
.ENDMACRO ; End macro definition

.LISTMAC ; Enable macro expansion 

MACX r2,r1 ; Call macro, show expansion

MACRO - Begin macro

The MACRO directive tells the Assembler that this is the start of a Macro. The MACRO directive takes the Macro name as parameter. When the name of the Macro is written later in the program, the Macro definition is expanded at the place it was used. A Macro can take up to 10 parameters. These parameters are referred to as @0-@9 within the Macro definition. When issuing a Macro call, the parameters are given as a comma separated list. The Macro definition is terminated by an ENDMACRO directive.

By default, only the call to the Macro is shown on the listfile generated by the Assembler. In order to include the macro expansion in the listfile, a LISTMAC directive must be used. A macro is marked with a + in the opcode field of the listfile.

Syntax:

.MACRO macroname

Example:

.MACRO SUBI16 ; Start macro definition 
subi @1,low(@0) ; Subtract low byte 
sbci @2,high(@0) ; Subtract high byte 
.ENDMACRO ; End macro definition

.CSEG ; Start code segment 
SUBI16 0x1234,r16,r17 ; Sub.0x1234 from r17:r16

MESSAGE - Output a message string

The MESSAGE directive outputs a string. Useful in conditional assembly.

Syntax:

.MESSAGE "<string>"

Example:

.IFDEF DEBUG
.MESSAGE "Debug mode"
.ENDIF

NOLIST - Turn listfile generation off

The NOLIST directive tells the Assembler to turn listfile generation off. The Assembler normally generates a listfile which is a combination of assembly source code, addresses and opcodes. Listfile generation is turned on by default, but can be disabled by using this directive. The directive can also be used together with the LIST directive in order to only generate listfile of selected parts of an assembly source file.

Syntax:

.NOLIST

Example:

.NOLIST ; Disable listfile generation 
.INCLUDE "macro.inc" ; The included files will not 
.INCLUDE "const.def" ; be shown in the listfile 
.LIST ; Reenable listfile generation

ORG - Set program origin

The ORG directive sets the location counter to an absolute value. The value to set is given as a parameter. If an ORG directive is given within a Data Segment, then it is the SRAM location counter which is set, if the directive is given within a Code Segment, then it is the Program memory counter which is set and if the directive is given within an EEPROM Segment, it is the EEPROM location counter which is set.

The default values of the Code and the EEPROM location counters are zero, and the default value of the SRAM location counter is the address immediately following the end of I/O address space (0x60 for devices without extended I/O, 0x100 or more for devices with extended I/O) when the assembling is started. Note that the SRAM and EEPROM location counters count bytes whereas the Program memory location counter counts words. Also note that some devices lack SRAM and/or EEPROM.

Syntax:

.ORG expression

Example:

.DSEG ; Start data segment
.ORG 0x120; Set SRAM address to hex 120 
variable: .BYTE 1 ; Reserve a byte at SRAM adr. 0x120

.CSEG 
.ORG 0x10 ; Set Program Counter to hex 10 
mov r0,r1 ; Do something

SET - Set a symbol equal to an expression

The SET directive assigns a value to a label. This label can then be used in later expressions. Unlike the EQU directive, a label assigned to a value by the SET directive can be changed (redefined) later in the program.

Syntax:

.SET label = expression

Example:

.SET FOO = 0x114; set FOO to point to an SRAM location 
lds r0, FOO; load location into r0 
.SET FOO = FOO + 1 ; increment (redefine) FOO. This would be illegal if using .EQU 
lds r1, FOO ; load next location into r1

OVERLAP/NOOVERLAP - Set up overlapping section

Introduced in AVRASM 2.1. These directives are for projects with special needs and should normally not be used.

These directives only affect the currently active segment (CSEG/DSEG/ESEG).

The .overlap/nooverlap directives mark a section that will be allowed to overlap code/data with code/data defined elsewhere, without any error or warning messages being generated. This is totally independent of what is set using the #pragma directives. The overlap-allowed attribute will stay in effect across .org directives, but will not follow across .cseg/.eseg/.dseg directives (each segment marked separately).

Syntax:

.OVERLAP

.NOOVERLAP

Example:

.overlap 
.org 0 ; section #1 
rjmp default 
.nooverlap 
.org 0 ; section #2 
rjmp RESET ; No error given here 
.org 0 ; section #3 
rjmp RESET ; Error here because overlap with #2

The typical use of this is to set up some form of default code or data that may or may not later be modified by overlapping code or data, without having to disable assembler overlap detection altogether.